The Phono–Graphix method is based on the theoretical underpinnings of the English code, the three skills needed to access that code, and teaching these in accordance with the way children learn. Phono-Graphix is research-based and has been successfully utilized by speech-language pathologists since 1993. Content is based on the nature of the English code, as described by linguists, and progresses from the sound to the symbol. Treatment employs the requisite three skills to access such a code: segmenting (to access independent sounds within words), blending (to push sounds together into words), and phoneme manipulation (to slide sounds in and out of words that contain overlapping spellings, such as the ‘ow’ in ‘brown’.
The Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Program (LiPS) develops phoneme awareness through a sensory-cognitive approach. The child learns to recognize how his/her mouth produces the sounds of language. The child learns to use kinesthetic feedback to verify sounds within words and to become self-correcting in speech.
Phonological Awareness is the ability to manipulate the structure of an utterance independently from its meaning. It is an auditory task that requires a child to manipulate the utterance at the word, syllable, or sound level. The component skills of phonological awareness include:
Identify words that sound alike. Rhyming skills underlie a child’s ability to use analogy to read unfamiliar words and particularly relevant to spelling.
Identify initial or final sound in a word. Alliteration skills are the basis of single-word reading skills.
Identify individual sounds within a word. The ability to segment sounds is an essential skill for spelling unfamiliar words.
Count the number of syllables in a word. Syllable segmentation is one of the earliest phonological awareness skills to emerge. It is an important skill for analyzing words for spelling and reading.
Identify whether a sound occurs at the beginning, middle, or end of a word. The ability to isolate sounds is a critical skill for a child to sound out and blend new words.
Identify sounds corresponding to individual graphemes (letters). The ability to decode letters to their corresponding sound indicates a child’s grasp of the alphabetic nature or principle of written language.